French conjugation rules



Les verbes sont classés en 3 groupes.

The verbs of the 1st group

The first group contains all verbs whose infinitive ends in -er verb except "aller".
Example: jouer, parler, chanter, manger...

This is a "regular" group because its radical (the beginning of the verb) does not change during the conjugation.
Example: Marcher (marche; marchons; marchent)
This group brings together over 90% of the French language verbs.

The verbs of the 2nd group

The 2nd group lists all the verbs whose infinitive ends in -ir and the present participle by -issant.
Example: finir (finissant), rougir (rougissant), frémir (frémissant)...

This is a "regular" group, since each of its verbs is always combined in the same way using 2 radicals: one for those singular and one for plural persons.
Example: roug-is; rougiss-ons

The verbs of the 3rd group

The 3rd group conprend all irregular verbs, but in this group of irregular verbs, there are nevertheless some subgroups that combine in the same way:

It should be noted that the verb is a verb ALLER exception, ending in -er but belonging to the third group.

Warning: AVOIR and ÊTRE are auxiliary and do not fall in any group. For more information see below:


There are two auxiliary: avoir et être. These two verbs belong to no group because their role in the combination is different.

The Methods and Time

The mode of a verb is the way he expresses the state or action. Each mode is associated with several times. There are two types of mode:

The impersonal modes

As their name suggests, impersonal modes have no personal pronoun.


The infinitive is the nominal form of the verb and the subject can also fill function, attribute or COD.

Le participe

The participle expresses the action and at the same time quality as an adjective.

Le gérondif

Often preceded by "en", clarifies circumstances a supplement of the main verb.

Personal modes

Introduced by a personal pronoun: je, tu, il, nous, vous, ils


Expresses actions and general truths.

Le subjonctif

Expresses uncertainty or the possibility of an action.

Le conditionnel

Expresses directly or indirectly provided.


Expresses an order or advice.

Les voix

There are 3 categories of voices that allow indicate how the subject takes part in the action

La voix active

The verb is in the active voice when the subject is driving the action. Le chat mange la souris.

La voix passive

The verb is in the passive voice when the subject is the viewer of the action and suffers.
Example: La souris est mangée par le chat.
Grammatically, the direct object of the verb moves to the left and becomes the subject while the subject becomes the complement to the right agent.

La voix pronominale

The reflexive voice is formed with the reflected pronoun "se".
Example: Il se balance de gauche à droite.